A Study in Zucker: Insights on Interactions
Between Humans and Small Service Robots

Alex Day1, Ioannis Karamouzas2
1Clemson University, 2University of California, Riverside
IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L)


Despite recent advancements in human-robot interaction (HRI), there is still limited knowledge about how humans interact and behave in the presence of small service indoor robots and, subsequently, about the human-centered behavior of such robots. This also raises concerns about the applicability of current trajectory prediction methods to indoor HRI settings as well as the accuracy of existing crowd simulation models in shared environments. To address these issues, we introduce a new HRI dataset focusing on interactions between humans and small differential drive robots running different types of controllers. Our analysis shows that anticipatory and non-anticipatory robot controllers impose similar constraints to humans’ safety and efficiency. Additionally, we found that current state-of-the-art models for human trajectory prediction can adequately extend to indoor HRI settings. Finally, we show that humans respond differently to small differential drives than to other humans when collisions are imminent, since interacting with small robots can only cause a finite level of discomfort as compared to human-human interactions.



title={A Study in Zucker: Insights on Interactions Between Humans and Small Service Robots}, 
author={Day, Alex and Karamouzas, Ioannis},
journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
volume  = {9},
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